Inductive Argument 18. Constructing an Argument 47 49 50 51 52 55 58 59 63 67 70 70 72 73 11 79 81 84 86 PART F O U R — T H E SOURCES OF ILLOGICAL THINKING 1. Written explicitly for the layperson. A final word, of admiration and appreciation, for a sparkling little book called The Elements of Style, by William Strunk, Jr., and E. B. Syllogistic A rgument / / . BEYOND FEELINGS A GUIDE TO CRITICAL THINKING by VINCENT RYAN RUGGIERO The likelihood is that it has never been properly developed, pointing to a deficiency in their education. Sound Argument 9. My governing purpose was to write a practical guidebook, presenting the basic principles of logic in a way that is accessible to those who are encountering the subject for the first time. Pages 159 It is a science and an art. First is the terse presentation; while examples are provided, a lot of information is provided in a very compact form. Don V Stop Short in the Search for Causes 5. From a philosophical perspective, I happen to stand with the virtue ethic, which is closely tied to the correspondence theory, so I didn’t struggle with this aspect of the book at all — but readers more attuned to the post-modern mind might. I treat logic in five stages, represented by the five parts of the book, each successive stage building upon the one that preceded it. Get the Facts Straight 3. Logic. If I have belabored certain points, and regularly opted for the explicit over the implicit, it is because I adhere to the time-honored pedagogic principle that it is always safest to assume as little as possible. We all know people who are very bright but who do not always shine when it comes to being logical. logic is a field with a pro-. Match Words to Ideas 7. They Get the Facts Straight. Includes bibliographical references. Being logical: a guide to good thinking / D. Q. Mclnerny. Preface xi In the hope of better serving the practical ends of the book, I have adopted a somewhat informal style, often addressing the reader directly, and, in the manner of a tutor or coach, sometimes assuming a distinctively directive tone. Being able to pull an argument apart, to understand the concept of a syllogism and the flow of logic, along with the various logical fallacies, adds greatly to your ability to write and process arguments for and against technologies and solutions (as well as in larger life). Other readers might be put off by what they perceive to be an emphasis upon the obvious. D. Q. McInerny. Making Comparisons 7. Year 2006. McInerny teases out the subtleties and complexities of premises and conclusions, differentiates statements of fact from statements of value, and discusses the principles and uses of every major type of argument, from the syllogistic to the conditional. BC71.M37 2004 160—dc22 2003058779 Text design by Mary A. Wirth Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper Random House website address: www.atrandom.com 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 First Edition IN MEMORIAM AUSTIN C L I F F O R D M C I N E R N Y and VIVIAN G E R T R U D E R U S H M C I N E R N Y We may take Fancy for a companion, but mustfollow Reason as our guide. The second part covers the basic principles of logic, including the concept of tracing an effect back through a cause, and the various ways in which we fail in this simple task. This book is intended to introduce readers to the rudiments of the science as well as to the basic skills associated with the art. What I have managed to accomplish here is no match for the unique achievement of Strunk and White, but I hope that Being Logical might to some degree succeed in doing for the cause of good thinking what The Elements of Style has done for that of good writing. Comparison and Argument 8. At the heart of the book is a consideration of argument-how an argument is founded and elaborated. Conclusions Must Reflect Quantity of Premises 16. Statements of Fact, Statements of Value 14. At the same time, however, I have tried to avoid lapsing into the simplistic. In logic, as in life, it is the obvious that most often bears emphasizing, because it so easily escapes our notice. how it differs from other forms of intellectual discourse, and how it embodies the elements of logic. CONTENTS i. ii. However, my aim here is very modest. Being able to pull an argument apart, to understand the concept of a syllogism and the flow of logic, along with the various logical fallacies, adds greatly to your ability to … found bearing on our lives. They have the ability to think logically—that is, clearly and effectively— but that ability does not habitually manifest itself. This book serves as a great, compact, readable introduction.