[85], Simon was nominated for the title of high priest, general, and leader by a "great assembly". But in 142 he was killed. [13] Politically and culturally it was dominated by Egypt,[14] each city under its own ruler, constantly at odds with its neighbours, and appealing to the Egyptians to adjudicate their differences. [63] According to the biblical history, Ezra and Nehemiah arrived in Jerusalem in the middle of the 5th century BCE, the former empowered by the Persian king to enforce the Torah, the latter holding the status of governor with a royal commission to restore Jerusalem's walls. [96][97][98], During this intermediate period of henotheism many families worshiped different gods. Jacob eventually had twelve sons who later became the twelve tribes of Israel, most predominantly Judah and Benjamin. The first short split between Israel and Judah At Saul’s death, the tribe of Judah made David their king, but the other tribes of Israel followed Saul’s son Ishbosheth. When Solomon died, his son Rehoboam (c. 930-913 B.C.E.) [20], Archaeologist Paula McNutt says: "It is probably ... during Iron Age I [that] a population began to identify itself as 'Israelite'," differentiating itself from its neighbours via prohibitions on intermarriage, an emphasis on family history and genealogy, and religion.[21]. [41] Jerusalem, while probably not totally abandoned, was much smaller than previously, and the town of Mizpah in Benjamin in the relatively unscathed northern section of the kingdom became the capital of the new Babylonian province of Yehud Medinata. Since this time, these people are known in history as the lost 10 tribes of Israel. "[100] This quote does not deny the existence of other gods; it merely states that Jews and Christians should consider Yahweh or God the supreme god, incomparable to other supernatural beings. He proved to be a successful general, defeating an army lead by Apollonius. There was no sign of violent invasion or even the infiltration of a clearly defined ethnic group. When James wrote his general epistle, he addressed it to “the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad” (James 1:1). His first conquest was Ptolemais. Israelite religion shares many characteristics with Canaanite religion, which itself was formed with influence from Mesopotamian religious traditions. One of the prominent tribes throughout the years was Judah. These surveys have revealed the sudden emergence of a new culture contrasting with the Philistine and Canaanite societies existing in the Land of Israel earlier during Iron Age I. The dynasty came to an end in 40 BCE when Herod was crowned king of Judah by the Romans. In order to raise this money, he decided to rob a temple. So why did Israel and Judah split? God allowed this, and Saul became the first king of all 12 tribes of Israel. [56] The Israel of the Persian period consisted of descendants of the inhabitants of the old kingdom of Judah, returnees from the Babylonian exile community, Mesopotamians who had joined them or had been exiled themselves to Samaria at a far earlier period, Samaritans, and others. [10], Canaan in the Late Bronze Age was a shadow of what it had been centuries earlier: many cities were abandoned, others shrank in size, and the total settled population was probably not much more than a hundred thousand. The word "Israel" is based on the name El rather than Yahweh. After the death of King Solomon of Israel, the 12 tribes of Israel divided into two kingdoms, and this has had a major effect on biblical history. Some of these ways, as stated in the Book of 1 Maccabees, were the building of a gymnasium, finding ways to hide their circumcision, and just generally not abiding by the holy covenant. [57] Egypt was eventually reconquered, but soon afterward Persia fell to Alexander the Great, ushering in the Hellenistic period in the Levant. The new high priest, Alcimus, had come to Jerusalem with the company of an army lead by Bacchides. Since he was of the tribe of Benjamin, Paul told people that he was both a Jew (Acts 21:39) and an Israelite (Philippians 3:5). Following the installation of client kingdoms under the Herodian dynasty, the Province of Judea was wracked by civil disturbances, which culminated in the First Jewish–Roman War, the destruction of the Second Temple, the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity. [37] This is reflected in archaeological sites and findings, such as the Broad Wall; a defensive city wall in Jerusalem; and the Siloam tunnel, an aqueduct designed to provide Jerusalem with water during an impending siege by the Neo-Assyrian Empire led by Sennacherib; and the Siloam inscription, a lintel inscription found over the doorway of a tomb, has been ascribed to comptroller Shebna. At this time Israel was apparently engaged in a three-way contest with Damascus and Tyre for control of the Jezreel Valley and Galilee in the north, and with Moab, Ammon and Aram Damascus in the east for control of Gilead;[31] the Mesha Stele (c. 830 BCE), left by a king of Moab, celebrates his success in throwing off the oppression of the "House of Omri" (i.e., Israel). [81] This led to the beginning of the Maccabean Revolt. In this transitional period many followers of the Israelite religion worshiped the god Yahweh but did not deny the existence of other deities accepted throughout the region. succeeded him as king of Judah… Israel had clearly emerged in the first half of the 9th century … Due to lack of food, Hyrcanus had to make a deal with Antiochus. Furthermore, Abraham’s descendant Ephraim was prophesied to “become a multitude of nations”; and his brother, Manasseh, a “great” nation (Genesis 48:19). At Saul’s death, the tribe of Judah made David their king, but the other tribes of Israel followed Saul’s son Ishbosheth. This led to war between Judah and the rest of Israel. In the central highlands this resulted in unification in a kingdom with the city of Samaria as its capital, possibly by the second half of the 10th century BCE when an inscription of the Egyptian pharaoh Shoshenq I, the biblical Shishak, records a series of campaigns directed at the area. He was informed of this knowledge by a rival of the current High Priest Onias III. For hundreds of years, Israel was a unified nation under King Saul, Israel’s first king. [80] Now with Jason as high priest and Antiochus IV as king, many Jews adopted Hellenistic ways. The Ptolemaic Rule also gave rise to 'tax farmers'. [74], Ptolemy I took control of Egypt in 322 BCE after the death of Alexander the Great. From this point on, it is a downhill and very slippery slope that Israel and Judah will walk. [90], Henotheism is defined in the dictionary as adherence to one god out of several. East of the plain and the Shfela is a mountainous ridge, the "hill country of Judah" in the south, the "hill country of Ephraim" north of that, then Galilee and Mount Lebanon. ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Avery-Peck, Alan, and Neusner, Jacob, (eds), "The Blackwell Companion to Judaism (Blackwell, 2003), Marc Zvi, "The Creation of History in Ancient Israel" (Routledge, 1995), Cook, Stephen L., "The social roots of biblical Yahwism" (Society of Biblical Literature, 2004), Day, John (ed), "In search of pre-exilic Israel: proceedings of the Oxford Old Testament Seminar" (T&T Clark International, 2004), Gravett, Sandra L., "An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible: A Thematic Approach" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2008), Grisanti, Michael A., and Howard, David M., (eds), "Giving the Sense:Understanding and Using Old Testament Historical Texts" (Kregel Publications, 2003), Hess, Richard S., "Israelite religions: an archaeological and biblical survey" Baker, 2007), Kavon, Eli, "Did the Maccabees Betray the Hanukka Revolution?